· Distinguishing general claims from data to support them
· Distinguishing deduction from induction
· Recognizing rhetorical patterns:
o Comparison and contrast
o Cause and effect
o Chronological order
· Recognizing genre conventions
o Materials and method
· Situational characteristics (discourse participants, medium (oral/written), temporary/permanent, etc.).
· Genre markers (linguistic features that typify the genre, e.g. once upon a time).
· Cohesive devices
- Reference words and substitutes (personal pronouns, demonstratives, so, one(s), the same, etc.
- Comparison (similar, same, identical, equal, different, other, additional, else, likewise, so, more, fewer, less, etc.)
- Lexical cohesion (repetition, synonyms, near synonyms, superordinate and general words)
· Lexical signalling: transitions adverbials, transition sentences and lexical words (and, namely, but, in spite of this, as a result, because, since, for the purpose of, thus, in order to, if/then, so, therefore, the reason, led to, provide, required, etc.)
· Patterns of co-occurring linguistic features.
· Information structuring: signs in text that signal the flow of information, differentiate from more important, signal given (typically at the beginning) and new info (toward the end).
· Topic continuity systems: ways of tracking topical information: topic continuity, topic persistence and referent competition.